Here is a list of my publications. If you don’t have access to any of these, please contact me at, or where licencing permits author’s versions are also linked.

My publications include those subject areas of :

  • Design – for my PhD – with Paul Curzon, William Marsh and Sue Sentance
  • PRIMM – with Sue Sentance
  • Microbit  – with Sue Sentance
  • Pedagogy  – with Paul Curzon, Sue Sentance, Christine Liebe, Shuchi Grove and others
  • Semantic Waves – Karl Maton and Paul Curzon
  • AI and Machine Learning – with Sue Sentance, Veronica Cucuit, Bobby Whyte, Ethel Tshukudu and  Sama Rizvi
  • Culturally relevant pedagogy – with Sue Sentance,  Hayley Leonard, Katharine Childs, Bobby Whyte and Alyson Hwang
  • Non-formal learning – with Sue Sentance and Tracy Gardener



AI and Machine Learning 3

Waite, J., Tshukudu, E., Cucuiat, V., Whyte, B. & Sentance S. 2023 Teaching and learning about AI/ML in K-12 education: Toward a framework for learning content analysis.  Submitted. 


AI and Machine Learning 2

Sentance, S. & Waite, J. (2022). Perspectives on AI and data science education. In AI, data science, and young people. Understanding computing education (Vol 3). Proceedings of the Raspberry Pi Foundation Research Seminars.

Design 7

Waite, J. 2022 Design in Primary Programming Activities in Computer Science Education: perspectives on teaching and learning in school. 2nd Ed. ISBN 9781350296909

AI and Machine Learning 1

Tshukudu, E., Waite, J., Sentance, S., & Rizvi, S. 2022. Teachers’ motivations to learn about AI.  Teachers’ Motivations to Learn about ML and AI. In Proceedings of the 27th ACM Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education Vol. 2, ITiCSE ’22, page 609, New York, NY, USA, 2022. Association for Computing Machinery. ISBN 9781450392006. doi: 10.1145/3502717.3532148. URL

Pedagogy 14

Waite, J., Curzon, P. & Brodie, J. 2022. Sharing research-informed programming pedagogy with IT Professionals. Submitted.


Pedagogy 13

Waite, J. & Sentance S,. 2021 Teaching programming in schools: A review of approaches and strategies. Raspberry Pi Foundation Research Report. ISSN 2514-586X (19) 

Pedagogy 12

Waite, J.,  Franceschini, A., Sentance, S.,  Patterson, M &  Sharkey, J. 2021. An online platform for teaching upper secondary school computer science. United Kingdom and Ireland Computing Education Research conference. Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, Article 3, 1–7. DOI:

Pedagogy 11

Morrison, B., Quinn,. B., Bradley, S., Buffardi, K., Harrington, B., Hu, H., Kallia, M., McNeill, F., Ola, O., Parker, M., Rosato, J.,  & Waite. J. 2022. Evidence for Teaching Practices that Broaden Participation for Women in Computing. In Proceedings of the 2021 Working Group Reports on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education (ITiCSE-WGR ’21). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 57–131. DOI:

Pedagogy 10 and PRIMM 4.

Sentance, S. & Waite, J. 2021. Teachers’ Perspectives on Talk in the Programming Classroom : Language as a Mediator.  In Proceedings of the 17th ACM Conference on International Computing Education Research, pages 266–280, Virtual Event USA, August 2021. ACM. ISBN 978-1-4503-8326-4. doi:10.1145/3446871.3469751.

Pedagogy 9

Waite, J.  & Liebe, C. 2021. Computer Science Student-Centered Instructional Continuum. In Proceedings of the 52nd ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education (SIGCSE ’21), March 13–20, 2021, Virtual Event, USA. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 1 page. Author Copy.


Semantic Waves 2

Curzon, P., Waite, J., Maton, K. & Donohue J.(2020). Using Semantic Waves to Analyse the Effectiveness of Unplugged Computing Activities. In WiPSCE ’20: The 15th Workshop in Primary and Secondary Computing Education, October 28–30, 2010, Online. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 10 pages.

Pedagogy 8

Waite, J & Grover S (2020). Worked Examples and Other Scaffolding Strategies in Computer Science in K-12: an A-Z handbook on teaching programming 

Design 6

Waite, J., Curzon, P., Marsh, W., & Sentance, S. (2020) Difficulties with design: The challenges of teaching design in K-5 programming, Computers & Education,    For those without institutional access to the published version here is the author version.



Sentance, S., Waite, J., Kalia, M. (2019) Teaching computer programming with PRIMM: a sociocultural perspective.  Computer Science Education (NCSE) Taylor & Francis

Pedagogy 7

Curzon, P., Bell, T., Waite, J. & Dorling, M. (2019) Computational thinking, Chapter 17 of The Cambridge Handbook of Computing Education Research, Cambridge Handbooks, Edited by Sally A. Fincher and Anthony V. Robins,  February. Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/9781108654555

Semantic Waves 1

Design 5

Waite, J. (2019) Design in K-5 Programming, Role of,   In Encyclopedia of Education and Information Technologies. Editors: Tatnall, Author. 1-12. Springer International Publishing, Cham 16 Apr 2019

Pedagogy 6

Csizmadia, A., Standl,B., Waite, J. (2019) Integrating the Constructionist Learning Theory with Computational Thinking Classroom Activities.  Informatics In Education. Vilnius University Institute of Data Science and Digital Technologies


Sentance, S., Waite, J. & Kallia, M., (2019) Teachers’ Experiences of using PRIMM to Teach Programming in School. In Proceedings of the 50th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education. ACM, pp. 476–482.


Design 4

Waite, J., Curzon, P,. Marsh, W. and Sentance. S (2018) Comparing K-5 teachers reported use of design in teaching programming and planning in teaching writing, in Proceedings of the 13th Workshop in Primary and Secondary Computing Education, editors Andreas Mühling, Quintin Cutts, Potsdam, Germany, October, ACM New York. DOI: 10.1145/3265757.3265761

Design 3

Waite, J.,  Curzon, P., Sentance, S.,  Marsh, W. & Hawden-Bennett, A.  (2018) Abstraction in action: K-5 teachers’ uses of levels of abstraction, particularly the design level, in teaching programming, International Journal of Computer Science Education in Schools. 2(1): 14-40. January. DOI: 10.21585/ijcses.v2i1.23

Pedagogy 5

Standl, B., Futschek, G., Waite, J., Csizmadia, A., & Vinikienė, L., (2018) WG1: Constructionist Approaches to Computational Thinking. In Proceedings of the 2018 Constructionism, Computational Thinking & Educational Innovation pp792-818 Vilnius Lithuania. Available from

Pedagogy 4

Waite, J., (2018) A continuum of scaffolding: from copying code to tinkering. Available at:

Pedagogy 3

Sentance, S. & Waite, J., (2018) Computing in the classroom: Tales from the chalkface. it-Information Technology, 60(2), pp.103–112. DOI: 10.1515/itit-2017-0014


Design 2

Waite, J. Curzon, P., Marsh, W., & Sentance, S., (2017) K-5 Teachers’ Uses of Levels of Abstraction Focusing on Design. In Proceedings of the 12th Workshop in Primary and Secondary Computing Education. ACM, pp. 115–116. DOI: 10.1145/3137065.3137068

Microbit 2

Sentance, S., Waite, J.,  Yeomans, L. & MacLeod, E.  (2017) Teaching with physical computing devices: the BBC micro:bit initiative. In Proceedings of the 12th Workshop in Primary and Secondary Computing Education. pp87-96. ACM. DOI: 10.1145/3137065.3137083


Sentance, S. & Waite, J., (2017) PRIMM: Exploring pedagogical approaches for teaching text-based programming in school. In Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on Primary and Secondary Computing Education. ACM, pp. 113–114. DOI: 10.1145/3137065.3137084

Microbit 1

Sentance, S., Waite, J., Hodges, S., MacLeod, & E., Yeomans, L., (2017) Creating Cool Stuff: Pupils’ Experience of the BBC micro: bit. In Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education. ACM, pp. 531–536. DOI: 10.1145/3017680.3017749

Pedagogy 2

Waite, J., (2017) Pedagogy in teaching Computer Science in schools: A Literature Review. (After The Reboot: computing education in UK Schools). The Royal Society. Available at: 

Pedagogy 1

Waite, J.  (2017) Cooks, Chapter 8 of Teaching Computing Unplugged in Primary Schools, Helen Caldwell and Neil Smith (eds) Sage.


Design 1

Waite, J., Curzon, P., Marsh, W. & Sentance. S. (2016) Abstraction and common classroom activities, In WiPSCE ’16: Proceedings of the 11th Workshop in Primary and Secondary Computing Education, pp112-113, October, ACM. DOI: 10.1145/2978249.2978272


Barefoot 1:

Berry, M., Woolard, Ross, Z., Waite, J., and Chippindall, J., 2015. Barefoot computing resources. Available at: